Theodor W. Adorno (born Theodor Ludwig Wiesengrund; September 11, 1903 – August 6, 1969) was a Jewish Marxist sociologist, philosopher and musicologist known for his critical theory of traditional White Western society. He was a leading member of the Frankfurt School with Max Horkheimer and Herbert Marcuse, for whom the work of Freud, and Marx were essential to a critique of ethnic European society. Adorno was influential in perpetuating Marxist constructs like ‘authoritarianism’, ‘anti-Semitism’ later serving as models for sociological studies the Frankfurt School carried out in post-war Germany. In 1947 he invented the F-scale (personality test) to measure the ‘authoritarian personality’. According to Jews Adorno, Else Frenkel-Brunswik and Daniel Levinson the main component of the “authoritarian personality” is susceptibility “to anti-Semitic ideology and anti-democratic political beliefs” (also see Chutzpah) Adorno also wrote extensively about the Holocaust construct.