Theodor W. Adorno (born Theodor Ludwig Wiesengrund; September 11, 1903 – August 6, 1969) was a Jewish Marxist sociologist, philosopher and musicologist known for his critical theory of traditional White Western society. He was a leading member of the Frankfurt School with Max Horkheimer and Herbert Marcuse, for whom the work of Freud, and Marx were essential to a critique of ethnic European society. Adorno was influential in manipulating concepts like ‘authoritarianism’, ‘anti-Semitism’ and ‘propaganda’ later serving as models for sociological studies the Frankfurt School carried out in post-war Germany. Adorno was also involved with writings on German responsibility for the Jewish invention called the ‘Holocaust’. As a critic of both fascism and what he called the ‘culture industry’-i.e the degradation of culture, his writings—such as Dialectic of Enlightenment (1947), Minima Moralia (1951) and Negative Dialectics (1966)—strongly influenced Cultural Marxism.