Sanskrit is a standardised dialect of Old Indo-Aryan, originating as Vedic Sanskrit and tracing its linguistic ancestry back to Proto-Indo-Iranian and Proto-Indo-European. The Sanskrit language, with its old and modern descendants, represents the easternmost branch of the great Indo-Germanic, or Aryan, stock. Philological research has clearly established the fact that the Indo-Aryans must originally have immigrated into India from the north-west. Their oldest literary manuscripts documents their gradual advance from the slopes of eastern Kabulistan down to the land of the five rivers (Punjab), and then to the plains of the Yamuna (Jumna) and Ganga (Ganges). Numerous similarities of both of language and mythology, between the Vedic Aryans and the peoples of Iran also show that these two members of the Indo-Germanic family must have remained in close connexion for some considerable period after other Germanic peoples had separated from them. Therefore, Sanskrit may be considered the eldest daughter of the old mother tongue. Indeed, as direct documentary evidence goes, it may be said to be the only surviving daughter; for none of the other six principal members of the family have left any literary monuments, and their original features have to be reproduced, as best they can, from the materials supplied by their own daughter languages. This is the case with the Iranic, Hellenic, Italic, Celtic, Teutonic and Letto-Slavic languages. Sanskrit’s antiquity and extent of its literary documents, the transparency of its grammatical structure, the comparatively primitive state of its accent system, and the thorough grammatical treatment it has early received at the hand of native scholars must ever secure the foremost place in the comparative study of Indo-Germanic speech.