Helmuth James Graf von Moltke
Helmuth James Graf von Moltke (11 March 1907 – 23 January 1945) was a German jurist who, as a draftee in the German Abwehr, worked against the best interest of the Fatherland during WWII. Von Moltke had a circle of acquaintances who opposed National Socialism and who met frequently in Berlin but on three occasions met at Kreisau. These three gatherings were the basis for the term “Kreisau Circle” The meetings at Kreisau had an agenda of well-organized discussion topics. The theme of the meeting in the autumn of 1942 included developing a pan-European concept similar to that of Coudenhove-Kalergi that would replace the nationalist German ideal of a European racial community with an ethnically heterogeneous (international miscegenation) society summarized in documented resolutions, while June, 1943 addressed how to handle the legacy of ‘war crimes’ after the fall of National Socialism. The collaboration with international Jewry here is startling when one considers that Germany was yet to be defeated. It was von Moltke that smuggled the text of the sixth leaflet of the White Rose Communist Student Movement out of Germany through Scandinavia to the United Kingdom, and in July, 1943, copies of it were dropped over Germany by Allied planes, retitled “The Manifesto of the Students of Munich.” The National Socialist government quite rightly executed von Moltke for treason.