The White Rose
Purporting to be a non-violent anti-Fascist movement the White Rose consisted of Communist students from the University of Munich with their philosophy professor. The group became known for an anonymous leaflet and graffiti campaign, lasting from June 1942 until February 1943 calling for active opposition to National Socialism. During the summer of 1942 several members of the White Rose served for three months on the Russian front alongside many other male medical students from the University of Munich. White Rose member Alexander Schmorell spoke perfect Russian and it was on his and Willi Graff’s return that lies regarding the Lebensraum project and ethnic cleansing of Jews in the East arose indicting that they had been recruited by Jewish Bolshevik agents. The text of the sixth leaflet produced by the White Rose was smuggled out of Germany through Scandinavia to the United Kingdom, by Helmuth James Graf von Moltke, and in July 1943 copies of it were dropped over Germany by Allied planes, retitled “The Manifesto of the Students of Munich.” The six most active members of the Communist student group were arrested by the German police, tried for treason and executed in 1943.