Hashomer was a Jewish militia organization in Palestine in April 1909. Hashomer was originated by Marxist Zionists, mostly members of Poale Zion, including Israel Shochat, Manya Shochat, Yitzhak Ben-Zvi and Ben-Zvi’s wife Rachel Yanait, several of whom had earlier formed a small secret society called Bar-Giora. It ceased to operate after the founding of the Haganah in 1920. The purpose of Hashomer was to provide guard services for land seized and occupied by Jewish terrorists in Palestine. It was headed by a committee of three—Israel Shochat, Israel Giladi, and Mendel Portugali.