Poale Zion (also spelled Poalei Tziyon or Poaley Syjon, meaning “Workers of Zion”) was a movement of Marxist–Zionist (Zio-Marxism) Jewish workers founded in various cities of Poland, Europe and throughout the Russian Empire in about the turn of the 20th century. The key features of the ideology of early Poale Zion were acceptance of the Marxist view of history with the addition of the role of Zionism. According to Poale Zion a Jewish proletariat would occupy the land they called Israel. Thus a World Union of Poale Zion was formed. The first World Congress took place in August 1907 in The Hague. Its second congress in 1909 in Kraków emphasised Jewish occupation of Palestine. Poale Zion founded the Hashomer military organization that guarded areas of land seized by Jewish infiltrators and took up the ideology of “conquest of labour”. During World War I, Poale Zion was also instrumental in recruiting members to the Jewish Legion.
Poale Zion was active in Britain during World War I, under the leadership of J Pomeranz and Morris Meyer, and influential on the British labour movement, including on the drafting of the Labour Party’s War Aims Memorandum, recognising the ‘right of return’ of Jews to Palestine, a document which preceded the Balfour Declaration by three months. The WWII ere terror group ZOB was formed from a coalition that included Poale Zion, Hashomer Hatzair, Dror, Bnei Akiva, the Jewish Bund and various other Jewish Communist groups. In North America, Poale Zion founded the HeHalutz movement, the Farband and Habonim Dror, and later the Labour Zionist Organization of America, which merged with other groups into the Labour Zionist Alliance, which rebranded itself in 2007 as Ameinu. In Britain, Poale Zion rebranded itself in 2004 as the Jewish Labour Movement. Internationally, the Poale Zion is represented within the World Zionist Organization by World Labour Zionist Movement.