Materialism was a philosophy abandoned by the Greeks over 2000 years ago. It holds that the only thing that exists is matter or energy; that all things are composed of material and all phenomena (including consciousness) are the result of material interactions. The concept was rejected because it fails to adequately encompass metaphysical expression. Marx resurrected the concept in order to quash European spirituality in his invention of Marxian socialism. He claimed this was a “scientific” socialism and according to his followers, this new international materialistic socialism must be followed with Talmudic precision by all humanity and any who disagree are heretics.