Irving Kristol (January 22nd, 1920 – September 18th, 2009) was a Jewish columnist, journalist, and writer. Kristol was born in Brooklyn, New York, the son of Jewish immigrants from Eastern Europe. . “As a child, he went to the local Hebrew school two afternoons a week and Sunday mornings, learning to read the prayer book and Bible by translating the Hebrew into Yiddish…At home, his parents spoke Yiddish…In school, the rabbi enforced classroom discipline by a strong slap in the face and taught the children to fear Gentiles and to spit when passing a church.” (Gertrude Himmelfarb) – Kristol received his B.A. from the City College of New York in 1940, and was part of a small but vocal Trotskyist group who eventually became the New York Intellectuals. In February 1979, Kristol was featured on the cover of Esquire. The caption identified him as “the godfather of the most powerful new political force in America – Neo-conservatism“.