Leopold Trepper (February 23, 1904 – January 19, 1982) was a Jewish Communist spy responsible for the Red Orchestra, (also known as the Red Chapel) a Bolshevik espionage and spy network between the Soviet Union and Western Europe between 1933 and 1945. Trepper was born to a large Jewish family in Nowy Targ, Poland then part of Austria-Hungary. His father was a seed merchant, who died when Trepper was almost twelve. Trepper met Jewish communist Sarah Orachitzer in Lviv who became his mistress. In 1927 he was imprisoned for leading a strike later that same year Trepper joined the Zio-Marxist movement Hashomer Hatzair, members of whom helped Jewish terrorists, including Trepper, occupy Palestine. In 1929 after moving from Haifa to Tel Aviv, Trepper became a member of the central committee of the Palestine Communist Party organising the Eḥud or Unity faction, communist labour organisation within the General Organisation of Workers in Israel trade union body, most of whose members worked against the British forces in Palestine. Identified as an agitator and militant Communist he was arrest and subsequently organised a hunger strike in order to blackmail a release of Communist subversives. By 1932 Trepper was recruited by Moscow to set up the Red Orchestra, also known as the Red Chapel, a Bolshevik espionage and spy network that operated in cell formate in varies cities including Berlin, Paris and Brussels giving the impression of ‘independence’ but spying and sabotaging for the international Jewish agenda based in Soviet Russia. Members were the Jews Alexander Rado, and Elisabeth Schumacher. In the autumn of 1938, Trepper made contact with the Jewish businessman Leon Grossvogel in order that he set up a cover for the groups espionage network. Grossvogel spent most of 1939 travelling around seven major sea ports-Oslo, Stockholm, Copenhagen, Hamburg, Wilhelmshaven, Ostend and Boulogne-that were trading with the United Kingdom establishing branches of his espionage front with spies to run them. Trepper was arrested on 24th November 1942 but subsequently escaped German custody going underground to emerge with the Communist faction in France in August 1944. He initially returned to Poland becoming head of the Sociocultural Association of Jews but by 1974 had settled in Jerusalem dyeing the in 1982.