Rudolf Abel, real name William August Fisher (July 11, 1903 – November 15, 1971) was a Jewish Bolshevik spy. Fisher was born William August Fisher in the Benwell area of Newcastle upon Tyne, the second son of Heinrich and Lyubov Fisher Jewish Bolshevik terrorists active in Tsarist Russia. Fisher’s father taught and agitated with Vladimir Lenin at St Petersburg’s Technological Institute. He was arrested for sedition in 1896 later avoiding military service in the Tsars army fled to the United Kingdom in 1901 were he was a Bolshevik gunrunner, shipping arms from the North East coast to the Baltic states. In 1921, following the Bolshevik seizure of Eastern Europe, the Fisher family left Newcastle upon Tyne to return to Moscow. Following his return Fisher worked for the Comintern as a translator due to his fluency in English, Russian, German, Polish and Yiddish. He served in the Red army (1925-26) then was recruited by the OGPU, a predecessor of the KGB, in May 1927. He worked for the OGPU as a radio operator in Norway, Turkey, the United Kingdom, and France. He returned to the Soviet Union in 1936, as head of a school that trained radio operators destined to be Bolshevik sleeper agents; one of which was the Jew Kitty Harris, a long term courier for atomic spies widely known as “The Spy with Seventeen Names”. During WWII Fisher again trained radio operators for clandestine work behind German lines and in 1946 was trained as a spy for entry into the United States. Fisher crossed into the United States on November 17 and met with Jewish Bolshevik sleeper Josef Romvoldovich Grigulevich (codenamed “MAKS” or “ARTUR”), on November 26th who set him up with forged papers. By 1949 Fisher had reactivated the Bolshevik Volunteer Spy network, a forerunner of the Sayanim and originally run by Jews Morris and Iona Cohen, to smuggle atomic secrets to Russia. During this period he travelled to Santa Fe, New Mexico, the collection point for stolen diagrams from the Manhattan Project. The Jewish spy and former pupil of Fisher, Kitty Harris, was sent to Santa Fe in 1943, where she ran a safe house and passed secrets from physicists to couriers. The arrest of Julius and Ethel Rosenberg in 1950 jeopardised Fisher’s ‘sleeper’ status. The Jew Lona Cohen had been courier to Julius and Ethel Rosenberg and while the Cohen’s were quickly spirited to Mexico then to Moscow before their cover was blown later to resurface in the United Kingdom using the identities of Peter and Helen Kroger; Fisher was relieved the Rosenbergs did not disclose any information about him to the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). On June 21, 1957 Fisher was arrested and detained on information provided by Soviet defector Reino Häyhänen.